How TCP/IP Protocol Works on Serial Server?


Just Hatched
As you know, a serial server is a data communication device that is converted into a TPC / IP network interface through a serial port. So what is TCP / IP?
While at first glance TCP / IP communication (and collecting data from TCP / IP devices) may seem daunting, it is actually a very simple communication tool.
What is TCP/IP and where does it come from?
TCP/IP stands for "Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol". It is basically a network protocol that defines the details of how data is sent and received through network adapters, hubs, switches, industrial routers, and other network communication hardware. Its purpose is to interconnect government computer systems over a global fault-tolerant network. The DoD network was opened to research institutions and eventually to the public to create what is now the Internet. the TCP/IP protocol has also been placed in the public domain so that any software company can develop network software based on it. Since it is the main protocol used on the Internet and is in the public domain.
How does TCP/IP work?
The TCP/IP protocol is designed so that each computer or device on a network has a unique "IP address" (Internet Protocol address) and each IP address can open and communicate through up to 65535 different "ports "An IP address uniquely identifies a computer or device on the network, and a "port number" identifies a specific connection between one computer or device and another (i.e., between two IP addresses). A "port" can be thought of as a dedicated two-way communication line, where the port number is used to identify a unique connection between two devices.
The TCP/IP model protocols have a significant advantage: they operate independently of the hardware and underlying software. Regardless of the operating system used or the device communicating over the network, these protocols are standardized and can be used in any situation.
The protocols include layers 3 and 4 of the OSI model. The transport and link layers are directly responsible for connecting two devices in a network. For example, IP addresses and the Internet Protocol are used to send packets to the correct recipient. TCP, on the other hand, is responsible for establishing a connection between two devices and maintaining that connection for data transfer. If the packet transmission fails, the protocol will attempt to resend the packet.
TCP / IP Model
Since TCP / IP is just a generic term for the most important Internet protocols, the term is used in other instances as well. This is why there is also a reference model that controls TCP / IP. Similar to the OSI model, this model aims to map all aspects of network communication. However, the TCP / IP model consists of four different layers, while the OSI model has seven layers. layers in the TCP / IP model are assigned various tasks and therefore protocols.
  • Network Access Layer: This layer is included in the reference model, but no specific protocols are defined. In practice, the Ethernet (wired) and IEEE 802.11 (wireless) protocols are mainly used. The Network Access Layer is used to link different subnets for applications, such as connecting a home Wi-Fi network to the Internet through a router.
  • Internet layer: The Internet protocol runs on this layer and ensures that the transmitted data reaches the correct destination. Packets are routed through the network by IP address.
  • Transport Layer: TCP is used in the reference model for transport. This protocol allows end-to-end communication, which means that it is responsible for the connection between two devices. Along with TCP, UDP is also part of this layer.
  • Application layer: The top layer controls communication between applications throughout the network. protocols such as HTTP and FTP are critical to the application layer. Email communication protocols (such as POP or SMTP) also run on this layer.
TCP / IP client and server connections
A TCP / IP connection works similarly to a telephone call, where someone must initiate the connection by making a phone call. On the other end of the connection, someone must first listen to the call and then answer it when it comes in. In TCP/IP communication, IP addresses are similar to phone numbers and port numbers are similar to phone numbers. The "client" in a TCP/IP connection is the computer or device that "dials" the call, and the "server" is the computer or device that "listens" to the call. The "client" in a TCP/IP connection is the computer or device "making the call" and the "server" is the computer "listening" to the call. In other words, the client needs to know the IP address of any server it wants to connect to once the connection is established, and it also needs to know the port number through which it wants to send and receive data.
Once a connection is established between a TCP/IP client and a TCP/IP server over a TCP/IP port, data can be sent in either direction (serial, parallel, etc.) in exactly the same way as data is sent over any other type of port on the PC. The only difference is that the data is sent over the network. The connection between the client and the server remains open until either the client or the server terminates the connection (i.e. hangs up the phone.) A very nice benefit of the TCP/IP protocol is that the low-level drivers that implement data sending and receiving perform error checking on all data, so you can be sure that any data you send or receive will be error-free.

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